42 thoughts on “(English) Programming ARM Cortex (STM32) under GNU/Linux

  1. norbert pisze:

    your tutorial was quite helpful for me understanding how to compile source code using an arm-none-eabi-gcc toolchain for the nucleo F401RE board.
    Could you provide a listing of the files in your final project folder too? (with the tree command for example?)
    I struggle with the problem, that during startup the call to __libc_init_array seems to hang in an infinity loop … have you expericences something similar or have some advice?
    Thx :)

    • Hi, my nucleo-templace directory looks like this:

      $ tree nucleo-template
      ├── delay.c (SysTick configuration to tick every ~1us)
      ├── delay.h
      ├── main.c (main program)
      ├── Makefile
      ├── system
      │   ├── startup_stm32f401xe.s
      │   └── STM32F401CE_FLASH.ld
      ├── system.c (clock source and flash memory configuration)
      ├── usart.c (uart configuration)
      └── usart.h
      1 directory, 9 files

      Make sure you use the right command to link your object files. Following options are required to make it work:

      -mcpu=cortex-m4 -mlittle-endian -mthumb -mthumb-interwork -DSTM32F401xE -TSTM32F401CE_FLASH.ld -Wl,--gc-sections

  2. Radu pisze:

    Thank you for your introduction into programming the STM32F4 under Linux. Looking forward to read your STM32F4Cube tutorial. Do you already have a template for a cube based project?

  3. Ganesh Babu pisze:

    Hi, I would like to know If we can run liunx on STM32F405xx,,is it possible to run a linux Kernel on it…?If not why??Thanks for the valuable time…

  4. mirecta pisze:

    can u explain:
    why is need option -mthumb-interwork ?
    in arm website is: all cortex-m cores is thumb capable only so they have not arm instruction set only thumb

  5. Johann Schiller pisze:

    Hey ho,

    nice tutorial. I get it compiled and written onto my nucleo but the led is still of. Could you please provide your minimal template. I am very interested in it.



    • Hi,

      Please try to start debugger session:

      $ openocd -f /usr/share/openocd/scripts/board/st_nucleo_f401re.cfg
      $ telnet localhost 4444
      (((type:))) reset halt

      then (assuming your compiled binary is in main.elf) on another terminal:

      $ arm-none-eabi-gdb -tui --eval-command="target remote localhost:3333" main.elf

      Set breakpoints and run, then post your results.

  6. Bernd pisze:

    when trying to compile system.c I get the following error:

    system.c: In function \’SystemInit\’:system.c:73:3: warning: implicit declaration of function \’SystemInitError\’ [-Wimplicit-function-declaration] SystemInitError(SYSTEM_INIT_ERROR_FLASH); ^system.c: At top level:system.c:91:6: warning: conflicting types for \’SystemInitError\’ void SystemInitError(uint8_t error_source) { ^system.c:73:3: note: previous implicit declaration of \’SystemInitError\’ was here SystemInitError(SYSTEM_INIT_ERROR_FLASH); ^

    Am I missing something? Could you please clarify which files exactly I need to have in my project folder and what contents they should have?

    • Hi!

      Try to move SystemInitError() function to line 26 (just above SystemInit()).

      Could you please clarify which files exactly I need to have in my project folder and what contents they should have?

      You will need only 4 files:

      • main.c
      • system.c
      • startup_stm32f401xe.s (from STM32Cube, path in article
      • STM32F401CE_FLASH.ld (from STM32Cube, path in article
  7. Dave Gilbert pisze:

    The STM32F401CE_FLASH.ld in the STM32Cube zip has a really nasty copyright restriction \’This file may only be built (assembled or compiled and linked) using the Atollic TrueSTUDIO(R) product. The use of this file together with other tools than Atollic TrueSTUDIO(R) is not permitted.\’Nasty!

  8. Steffen Vogel pisze:

    Hi,i took some time to write a simple and generic Makefile for the STM32Cube libraries. Maybe you want to link it to your post. https://github.com/stv0g/stm32cube-gccIt should work with most STM32Cube bundes.It downloads the Cube files automatically and setups a template/example for you.There\’s only one thing, I not sure about:How do I compile the HAL source code?Do you add those C files to your object list which will be compiled?Or do you build those separately to a library which gets linked to your actual code?Regards,Steffen

  9. Kevin Wolfe pisze:

    Extremely helpful information! Thank you for taking the time to post this. I went from 0 to Hero on my STM32L152RE in just a few hours due to just this post. Thank you!

  10. Victor_crimea pisze:

    I\’m trying to adhust your example to stm32f3-discovery board. When I\’m tring to compile the main.c I\’ve got:main.c: In function \’main\’:main.c:9:5: error: \’RCC_TypeDef\’ has no member named \’AHB1ENR\’ RCC->AHB1ENR |= RCC_AHB1ENR_GPIOAEN; ^main.c:9:18: error: \’RCC_AHB1ENR_GPIOAEN\’ undeclared (first use in this function) RCC->AHB1ENR |= RCC_AHB1ENR_GPIOAEN; I guess it\’s caused by differences between control registers or something else. But which exactly?p.s. Of course, i\’m using stm32cubef3.

    • Hi! I guess you are using Nucleo, then from STM32 Nucleo boards User Manual I see D13 (LED) is connected to PA5 (Table 11, page 35). You need to enable GPIOA clock in peripheral clock enable register, GPIOA is connected to APB2 bus. You can find this in Reference Manual (Figure 1., page 48). To enable GPIOA clock you need to find the right register, this will be APB2 peripheral clock enable register (RCC_APB2ENR). The last thing to do is to find the corresponding bit, this will be IOPAEN (IO port A clock enable). Please note, that GPIO registers also differs, you need to update LED initialization and LED_ON/LED_OFF macros.

      Edit: Sorry, I misread your board ;) I hope you understand the idea.

  11. v1ctor pisze:

    Hi, thanks for the article. Will you please show an example of your systick code?

  12. v1ctor pisze:

    Thanks, Patryk. Will you please advise what might be a problem – I did your system.c and delay.c code exactly the same and use this while function:

    GPIOA->ODR ^= 0×0030;

    And LED lights continuously, when I set SysTick->LOAD to 1000, and _delay_ms = 5, I have ~ 1 sec light on with ~ 100ms light off. Not make sense for me

  13. Daniel pisze:

    I had a problem when trying to build with the TRUESTUDIO linker script, which caused the output .elf file to be empty (zero size binary). I switched over to using the SW4STM32 linker script (I made stm32cube setup the project for SW4STM32) and it everything worked fine. Also, I was using the STM32F072RB chip on it\\’s corresponding nucleo board, if that makes any difference (I used STM32F072RBTx_FLASH.ld instead of what was described in the tutorial).

  14. kamhagh pisze:

    Hi, im only 16 and i love electronics, i study on my own and don’t have accesses to any paid books! i have an LPC1768 which i program using kail, but i wanted to do it on Linux and not just code like a robot and understand how they work
    so i read your article and i didn’t understand half the stuff you mentioned like NVIC etc, where should i get the back knowadge before doing these stuff? and also figuring them on my own, i mean how did you know you have to do this and wrote an article ?

    thanks btw :)

  15. doesnotwork pisze:

    arm-none-eabi-gcc -Wall -mcpu=cortex-m4 -mlittle-endian -mthumb -ISTM32CubeF4Root/Drivers/CMSIS/Device/ST/STM32F4xx/Include -ISTM32CubeF4Root/Drivers/CMSIS/Include -DSTM32F401xE -Os -c system.c -o system.osystem.c: In function \’SystemInit\’:system.c:73:3: warning: implicit declaration of function \’SystemInitError\’ [-Wimplicit-function-declaration] SystemInitError(SYSTEM_INIT_ERROR_FLASH); ^system.c: At top level:system.c:91:6: warning: conflicting types for \’SystemInitError\’ void SystemInitError(uint8_t error_source) { ^system.c:73:3: note: previous implicit declaration of \’SystemInitError\’ was here SystemInitError(SYSTEM_INIT_ERROR_FLASH); ^arm-none-eabi-gcc -Wall -mcpu=cortex-m4 -mlittle-endian -mthumb -ISTM32CubeF4Root/Drivers/CMSIS/Device/ST/STM32F4xx/Include -ISTM32CubeF4Root/Drivers/CMSIS/Include -DSTM32F401xE -Os -c main.c -o main.omain.c: In function \’main\’:main.c:22:23: error: \’GPIO_TypeDef\’ has no member named \’BSRRL\’ #define LED_ON() GPIOA->BSRRL |= (1 << 5) ^main.c:34:2: note: in expansion of macro \'LED_ON\' LED_ON(); ^main.c:36:1: warning: control reaches end of non-void function [-Wreturn-type] }

    ARM sucks. Back to AVR.

    • Satrapes pisze:

      I had the same problem as you but I looked and the two 16 bit registers bssrl and bssrh have been replaced by a 32 bit one bssr

  16. Satrapes pisze:

    Hi man,Thanks for this really cool article I am midway through it and it is really helpful.One of the things that is kind of shady though is the fact that the linker is not open source at all and has a really nasty copyright restriction as someone else put it as well.It would be a nice touch to provide your own linker script.If I make it myself first I will share it with you.Thanks.

  17. Satrapes pisze:

    Apparently there are some changes and you need to change main.c
    BSRRL and BSRRH have been merged into one BSRR.
    This means that you should change
    #define LED_ON() GPIOA->BSRRL |= (1 <BSRRH |= (1 <BSRR |= (1 <BSRR |= (1 << 21) //bit 5 reset (0)

  18. Satrapes pisze:

    Finally got it to work, yeah!!!So in order to get it to work instead of running telnet localhost 4444 I runarm-none-eabi-gdb main.elfthen inside the prompt>target remote localhost:3333>monitor reset halt> load> reset run or continueThe only thing that worries me is that the ST-Link is flashing between red and green instead of having a permanent green.

  19. Ludwig pisze:

    Hi Patrykyou lost me at the SystemInit function. I do not understand APB1, APB2, HCLK, some more. When I compared to a SystemInit function in the downloaded cube zip, that version does not seem to wait for a PLL to settle. Why the difference?Then I also saw that you\\’re using STM32F401RE, while I have the Discovery board with the STM32F407VGT6. I do not know if I can use your SystemInit with my chip and board.

  20. Sohail pisze:

    Thanks for the post Patryk. Just got the LED on my Nucleo 411 to blink. I really liked how you have detailed the basics without getting into GUI stuff.

    Thanks again.

  21. Phil Matthews pisze:

    Thanks for the tutorial. I got my Nucleo-64 board STM32F103RB flashing a LED mostly by following your instructions. I agree totally with you, especially when firing up a new board, that it is best to do an initial program from scratch and get familiar with the hardware and all the tools. It\’s the only way to be really competent.Thanks for such a clear tutorial.

  22. romuald adouko aka pisze:

    Hi Patryck ,Thanks for the tutorial. it waq helpful . i have one question , did you made the tutorial how to use ST HAL lib?Thank you for your help.

  23. lynx pisze:

    Hello, maybe someone know what is the problem. All was compiled good. But \\”arm-none-eabi-gcc … -o main.elf\\” return \\”/usr/local/bin/arm-none-eabi-ld: cannot find crt0.o: No such file or directory/usr/local/bin/arm-none-eabi-ld: cannot find -lc\\”. My OS freebsd, maybe some trouble in parameters, but I don\\’t know what required \\”crt0.o\\”, and I don\\’t find reasonable \\”srt0.o\\” on my HD. (only arduino, lazarus, and system sources)

  24. dusty pisze:

    Howdy! I just wish to give you a huge thumbs up for the
    great info you have right here on this post. I’ll be coming back to your site for more soon.

  25. Hugo Araújo pisze:

    Thank you man!!
    This tutorial was awesome! Finally I can program this board in Linux all by the terminal w/ help of Makefile.

    Keep up this good tutorials!

  26. kamhagh pisze:

    trying to make my board work is driving me insane!So here\’s what i did:1. I made a folder for my lpc1768 named cortex2. i put these files in it: \”core_cm3.h\”, \”LPC17xx.h\”, \”LPC17xx.ld\”(got from a random git hub), \”startup_LPC17xx.s\”, \”system_LPC17xx.h and c\”3. compiled the 3 .c files, all gave no warnings, no errors4, trying to compile the .s file gives me loads of errors! mostly saying bad instruction :|5. i tried to pick the pre compiled from keil folders and tried to skip to next step with already compiled startup code!6. here\’s what i get :| \”startup_LPC17xx.o: file not recognized: File format not recognizedcollect2: error: ld returned 1 exit status\”can you help me :?

  27. Hi I want to develop the Ethernet based GPIO on/off using STM32F103.I have planned to start development in ubuntu. for can you provide the free ide tool and it should have some tutorial for start my project.

  28. Giacomo pisze:

    You should check out this project, it’s a simple command-line tool that automates almost all of this. You just need to fire up a terminal and write a command to have a new STM32 project up and running with CMSIS, linker scripts, startup files and HAL libraries already configured and included.

  29. VLSI Projects pisze:

    Oh my goodness! Impressive article dude! Many thanks, However I am encountering difficulties with your RSS.
    I don’t understand the reason why I cannot join it. Is there anybody getting identical RSS issues?
    Anyone who knows the solution can you kindly respond?

  30. Ravi pisze:

    Very Big Thanks to you…:D :D
    You appeared online like a god to help me clarify my confusions.
    I wanted to switch to embedded linux. But, the complicated kernel level programming documents which mainly focus x86 based system developers, kept me in dark. I used to think, whatever low level drivers like UART/I2C/SPI…etc i wrote for Cortex M, can not be used on embedded linux. But, you clarified it to a lot extent. The only difference is you are using STMxxxx CPU, i’m using LPCxxxx CPUs in my project. I did every thing on keil & used to afraid to switch to linux (which i want to switch to for a long time) just because of that CMSIS/HAL structures used in Cortex. Secondly all PDFs i found starts directly accessing peripherals like SCSI/NIC…etc that looks horrible. In embedded systems most commonly used peripherals are I2C/UART/SPI…etc.

    Now, i know it is possible to use all those drivers written in CMSIS format as it is on linux & compiling the with GCC.

    I’m a complete newbie. I would be thankful to you, if you can suggest relevant online/pdf to study, especially for those who are coming from keil background like me.

    low level drivers written in CMSIS format are kernel space drivers only in linux terminology i think. Is it require/is their a way to register/include them in kernel, so that while booting up, kernel will load my low level drivers like it does for linux core system drivers like char driver/tty…etc. I don’t know whether my question itself is correct, it may sound a non sense/silly to a linux developer…but, please, clarify/suggest some document online/article on how to use low level drivers written in CMSIS format. like you explained this article.

    Once again thanks a lot for your effort….:)

  31. Brian doofus pisze:


    I’m using following commands to compile and make objects out of .c files..there’s definitely something fishy.. .hex file is 67kb which is enormous plus it doesn’t works..

    arm-none-eabi-gcc -Wall -mcpu=cortex-m4 -mlittle-endian -mthumb -I Include/ -I Inc/ -D STM32F401xE -Os -c startup_stm32f401xe.s -o Objects/startup_stm32f401xe.o

    arm-none-eabi-gcc -Wall -mcpu=cortex-m4 -mlittle-endian -mthumb -I Include/ -I Inc/ -D STM32F401xE -Os -c system_stm32f4xx.c -o Objects/system_stm32f4xx.o

    arm-none-eabi-gcc -Wall -mcpu=cortex-m4 -mlittle-endian -mthumb -I Include/ -I Inc/ -D STM32F401xE -Os -c main.c -o Objects/main.o

  32. Jean pisze:

    This is really a wonderful document. I am also looking for an option to get registered this website and receive updates when news come up here.

  33. Tom pisze:

    /* Store calibration value */
    PWR->CR |= (uint32_t)(16 << 3);

    What does this line do?

  34. paintball pisze:

    I do not even know how I ended up here, but I thought this post was great.
    I don’t know who you are but definitely you are going to a
    famous blogger if you aren’t already ;) Cheers!

  35. PiotrLenarczyk pisze:

    Jeśli ktoś szuka repozytorium o poruszaniu sie po LINUX’ie z linii komend i kilku przydatnych poradach to zapraszam na:
    If one looks for LINUX repository than she or he would look at my URL:
    Post Scriptum: dziękuję za tutorial.

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